Dietary methionine influences therapy in mouse cancer models and alters human metabolism.

Gao X, Sanderson SM, Dai Z, Reid MA, Cooper DE, Lu M, Richie JP Jr, Ciccarella A, Calcagnotto A, Mikhael PG, Mentch SJ, Liu J, Ables G, Kirsch DG, Hsu DS, Nichenametla SN, Locasale JW.

Nature. 2019 Aug;572(7769):397-401

PMID: 31367041

Nutrition exerts considerable effects on health, and dietary interventions are commonly used to treat diseases of metabolic aetiology. Although cancer has a substantial metabolic component1, the principles that define whether nutrition may be used to influence outcomes of cancer are unclear2. Nevertheless, it is established that targeting metabolic pathways with pharmacological agents or radiation can sometimes lead to controlled therapeutic outcomes. By contrast, whether specific dietary interventions can influence the metabolic pathways that are targeted in standard cancer therapies is not known. Here we show that dietary restriction of the essential amino acid methionine-the reduction of which has anti-ageing and anti-obesogenic properties-influences cancer outcome, through controlled and reproducible changes to one-carbon metabolism. This pathway metabolizes methionine and is the target of a variety of cancer interventions that involve chemotherapy and radiation. Methionine restriction produced therapeutic responses in two patient-derived xenograft models of chemotherapy-resistant RAS-driven colorectal cancer, and in a mouse model of autochthonous soft-tissue sarcoma driven by a G12D mutation in KRAS and knockout of p53 (KrasG12D/+;Trp53-/-) that is resistant to radiation. Metabolomics revealed that the therapeutic mechanisms operate via tumour-cell-autonomous effects on flux through one-carbon metabolism that affects redox and nucleotide metabolism-and thus interact with the antimetabolite or radiation intervention. In a controlled and tolerated feeding study in humans, methionine restriction resulted in effects on systemic metabolism that were similar to those obtained in mice. These findings provide evidence that a targeted dietary manipulation can specifically affect tumour-cell metabolism to mediate broad aspects of cancer outcome.

Bone Marrow Adiposity: Basic and Clinical Implications.

Sebo ZL, Rendina-Ruedy E, Ables GP, Lindskog DM, Rodeheffer MS, Fazeli PK, Horowitz MC.

Endocr Rev. 2019 Oct 1;40(5):1187-1206

PMID: 31127816

The presence of adipocytes in mammalian bone marrow (BM) has been recognized histologically for decades, yet, until recently, these cells have received little attention from the research community. Advancements in mouse transgenics and imaging methods, particularly in the last 10 years, have permitted more detailed examinations of marrow adipocytes than ever before and yielded data that show these cells are critical regulators of the BM microenvironment and whole-body metabolism. Indeed, marrow adipocytes are anatomically and functionally separate from brown, beige, and classic white adipocytes. Thus, areas of BM space populated by adipocytes can be considered distinct fat depots and are collectively referred to as marrow adipose tissue (MAT) in this review. In the proceeding text, we focus on the developmental origin and physiologic functions of MAT. We also discuss the signals that cause the accumulation and loss of marrow adipocytes and the ability of these cells to regulate other cell lineages in the BM. Last, we consider roles for MAT in human physiology and disease.

Identification and Application of Gene Expression Signatures Associated with Lifespan Extension.

Tyshkovskiy A, Bozaykut P, Borodinova AA, Gerashchenko MV, Ables GP, Garratt M, Khaitovich P, Clish CB, Miller RA, Gladyshev VN.

Cell Metab. 2019 Sep 3;30(3):573-593.e8. doi: 10.1016/j

PMID: 31353263 

Several pharmacological, dietary, and genetic interventions that increase mammalian lifespan are known, but general principles of lifespan extension remain unclear. Here, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analyses of mice subjected to 8 longevity interventions. We discovered a feminizing effect associated with growth hormone regulation and diminution of sex-related differences. Expanding this analysis to 17 interventions with public data, we observed that many interventions induced similar gene expression changes. We identified hepatic gene signatures associated with lifespan extension across interventions, including upregulation of oxidative phosphorylation and drug metabolism, and showed that perturbed pathways may be shared across tissues. We further applied the discovered longevity signatures to identify new lifespan-extending candidates, such as chronic hypoxia, KU-0063794, and ascorbyl-palmitate. Finally, we developed GENtervention, an app that visualizes associations between gene expression changes and longevity. Overall, this study describes general and specific transcriptomic programs of lifespan extension in mice and provides tools to discover new interventions.

Bone marrow adipocytes.

Horowitz MC, Berry R, Holtrup B, Sebo Z, Nelson T, Fretz JA, Lindskog D, Kaplan JL, Ables GP, Rodeheffer MS, Rosen CJ.

Adipocyte. 2017 Jul 3;6(3):193-204.

PMID: 28872979

Adipocytes were identified in human bone marrow more than a century ago, yet until recently little has been known about their origin, development, function or interactions with other cells in the bone marrow. Little functional significance has been attributed to these cells, a paradigm that still persists today. However, we now know that marrow adipose tissue increases with age and in response to a variety of physiologic induction signals. Bone marrow adipocytes have recently been shown to influence other cell populations within the marrow and can affect whole body metabolism by the secretion of a defined set of adipokines. Recent research shows that marrow adipocytes are distinct from white, brown and beige adipocytes, indicating that the bone marrow is a distinct adipose depot. This review will highlight recent data regarding these areas and the interactions of marrow adipose tissue (MAT) with cells within and outside of the bone marrow.