The FDA has approved a phase I clinical trial to test LOY-003, a novel therapeutic compound to delay aging in dogs. Why is this so important?
FDA Drug Approval and Aging
Some argue that aging is a natural biological process, not a pathological condition; others contend that aging is a disease that warrants medical intervention. Recent years have seen increasing support for the view of aging as a disease or at least as a significant driver of disease. This debate becomes particularly problematic when seeking FDA approval of drugs targeting aging. The FDA’s current regulatory framework is designed to evaluate drugs for the treatment of specific diseases with well-defined endpoints. Besides the contentious status of aging as a disease, the FDA recognizes aging as a complex and multifactorial process. This poses challenges in defining clear endpoints for clinical trials. While there is significant interest in developing drugs that target aging, the regulatory considerations and the complex nature of the aging process present substantial challenges.
To date, most drugs with the potential to delay or improve the aging process have had to find a kind of ‘backdoor’ entry into the FDA approval pipeline. For instance, modified versions of rapamycin—a well-characterized, pro-longevity compound, and part of a class of drugs known as rapalogs—have gained FDA approval for clinical trials by testing their efficacy in preventing viral infections in the elderly, rather than their ability to extend lifespan. The FDA’s approval of a clinical trial aimed at ‘treating’ aging, albeit in dogs, could be a significant step towards paving the way for future human trials.
Exploring the Study’s Foundations and the Importance of Utilizing Dogs
Developed by the veterinary biotech company Loyal, LOY-003, as well as its predecessors LOY-001 and LOY-002, have shown considerable promise in extending the lifespan of large-breed dogs. LOY-003 has received preliminary approval from FDA, based on initial data showing a ‘reasonable expectation of effectiveness.’ It is primarily targeted at dogs aged 7 years and older and weighing at least 40 pounds. It is administered as an injection every three to six months.
The science behind LOY-003 involves the hormone insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), which contributes to growth but is also linked to aging and longevity. In larger dog breeds, such as Great Danes, IGF-1 levels are significantly higher compared to smaller breeds like Chihuahuas. It is believed that high levels of IGF-1 in adult dogs accelerate their aging process and reduce their healthy lifespan. LOY-003 works by reducing IGF-1 to levels observed in smaller breeds, thereby potentially extending the healthy lifespan of larger dogs. The mechanisms underlying this drug’s actions are particularly interesting, as a large portion, if not the majority, of known interventions capable of extending the lifespan of laboratory animals are thought to work through the IGF-1 pathway. Examples include dietary restriction, metformin, and genetic modifications, as seen in the long-lived Ames dwarf mouse model.
One might ask, “Why dogs?” Dogs offer several advantages as experimental subjects. Like humans, and unlike many standard laboratory animal models, dogs are genetically diverse. This diversity helps to avoid the complication of confounding results due to a narrow genetic background. Additionally, as companion animals, dogs share our environment, thereby accounting for this particular variable as well. Lastly, and specifically in aging studies, dogs have a relatively short lifespan—about 10% of the human lifespan—allowing for a much faster research turnaround.
Although the significance of this trial as an initial step towards further FDA trials focused on aging cannot be overstated, it’s important to remember that the subjects of this study are large dogs with high levels of IGF-1. The benefits of this specific intervention might not be as substantial when applied to humans, given that IGF-1 levels in humans are dynamic over time and may not correlate with those in the study subjects. Considering that humans are already relatively long-lived, it is plausible that they may naturally benefit from lower levels of the hormone targeted by this drug.
The FDA’s approval of the phase I clinical trial for LOY-003, a treatment aimed at delaying aging in dogs, represents a significant milestone in the field of aging research. The outcomes of this trial could pave the way for future human trials, potentially transforming our approach to aging and longevity. This study not only represents an advance in veterinary medicine but also serves as a critical stepping stone in the quest to understand and potentially mitigate the effects of aging in humans.